Genetic engineering is the technology of handling and transfer of DNA from one organism to another, enabling the creation of new species, the correction of genetic defects and the manufacture of many compounds.
In 1973, researchers Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer first to produce the recombined parts of their DNA in what is considered the beginning of genetic engineering. In 1997, the first cloned mammal, Dolly the Sheep.
Genetic Engineering is currently working to create techniques to solve common problems of humanity, such as the shortage of donors for the urgent need of transplants. In this area are trying to make transgenic pigs that have organs consistent with those of men.
DNA is a fundamental basis of information possessed by all living organisms, even the most simple and small. This information is in turn divided into areas known quantity loci (plural) or locus (singular), that is where the inserted genes, which vary depending on the species. In turn, each gene contains the information necessary for the cell synthesizes a protein, so the genome and, consequently, the proteome, will be responsible for individual characteristics.
Genes control all aspects of the life of every organism, including metabolism, shape, development and reproduction. For example, a protein "X" will be manifested in the individual trait of "dark hair", while the protein "Y" determine the characteristic "blonde hair".
We can see that the genetic load of a particular organism may not be identical to another, even if they are the same species. However, it should be broadly similar to that reproduction can be given, because one of the most important properties of DNA, and why it has been said that evolution was possible, is to split and merged with DNA of another individual of the same species in order to achieve diversified descendency.
Another peculiarity of this molecule is its universality. Following the concept of gene, some questions arise: Are compatible the genetic load of different species? Can a gene from one species into another function and demonstrate an entirely different? Is it possible to isolate and manipulate DNA?
You can find more information by reading the article Deciphering the Code of Life